Animal plant

Human friend, elephant

Human friend, elephant (Picture 1)

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The main external features of the elephant are its flexible and muscular long nose and large scalloped ears. It has the function of winding and is a powerful tool for self-defense and feeding. According to historical records, elephants have long become human friends and can provide help to humans. Elephants are very smart, able to open up grounds and bury their dead companions among fallen leaves and branches. Elephants have a long life span, generally living to around 70 years old. They are sexually mature between 10 to 15 years old and have a pregnancy period of up to 22 months. Elephants are widely distributed. About 40 million years ago, every continent except Oceania and Antarctica had its footprints, but now there are mainly two types of Asian elephants and African elephants. Elephants are widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical areas south of the Sahara Desert in Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the southern border of China; they are mainly produced in India, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and other countries. There are also small wild populations in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China. African elephants and African forest elephants are widely distributed throughout the sub-Saharan African continent and like to live in groups.

Elephants are social animals, with a family as a unit, with female elephants as the leader. The time of daily activities, route of action, foraging places, habitats, etc. are all under the command of female elephants. The adult male elephant only assumes the responsibility of protecting the safety of the family. Sometimes several elephant herds gather to form a large herd of hundreds of elephants. Elephants can communicate with infrasound waves that cannot be heard by humans. In the absence of interference, they can generally travel 11 kilometers. If the medium is uneven due to airflow, they can only travel 4 kilometers. To communicate, the elephants stomped their feet together and produced a powerful "boom" sound. This method can travel up to 32 kilometers. How did the distant elephant hear it? Can't just put your ears on the ground and listen? In fact, elephants use bones for conduction. When sound waves are transmitted, the sound waves will travel along the soles of the feet through the bones to the inner ears, and the fat on the elephant's face can be used for sound amplification.

The African elephant lives in tropical forests, jungles and grasslands. It is the largest living terrestrial mammal. Living in groups should be led by a female elephant, day-travelling, without settlement. Feed on weeds, leaves, bark, twigs, etc. The reproductive period is not fixed. The gestation period is about 22 months. Each litter is sexually mature at the age of 13 to 14, and the life span is 70 years. The Beijing Zoo began breeding and display in 1954. The African elephant is the largest terrestrial mammal in existence, with a body length of 6 to 7.5 meters, a tail length of 1 to 1.3 meters, a height of 4.5 meters at the shoulder, and a weight of 7000 kg. The highest record is a male with a total length of 11 meters (including nose and tail), a forefoot circumference of 2 meters, and a weight of 13,000 kg. The largest ivory on record is 350 cm long and weighs about 107 kg. The extinct African grassland elephants in North Africa are relatively small, only 3.4 to 3.7 meters high and weighing about 8.9 tons. They are similar in size to African forest elephants.

Asian elephants live in tropical forests, jungles or grasslands. They live in groups, led by a female elephant, have no fixed habitat, and travel daily. The vision is poor (mainly because the elephant’s eyelashes are longer, which affects vision), the sense of smell and hearing is sensitive, and he likes to take a bath when it is hot. Foraging in the twilight, feed on weeds, leaves, bamboo leaves, wild fruits, etc. The reproductive period is not fixed, and the pregnancy period is 20-22 months. For every litter, 9-12 years old are sexually mature, and the life span is 70-80 years. Asian elephants have a high IQ, and their temperaments are docile and honest, and they are very easy to domesticate. Citizens of many countries in Southeast Asia and South Asia (especially Thailand and India) domesticated them for riding, performing labor, and performing. The training process of performance, riding, and labor is often very cruel. The trainer uses sharp elephant hooks and continuous beating to destroy their will and force them to yield. This process can cause irreversible damage to their physiology and psychology, so Asian elephants used for performance, riding, and labor often have serious behavioral abnormalities.