The atomic bomb is one of the nuclear weapons. It is a weapon of mass destruction that uses the photothermal radiation, shock wave and induced radioactivity of the nuclear reaction to cause killing and destruction, as well as large-scale radioactive pollution and prevent the military operations of the other side to achieve strategic goals. It mainly includes fission weapons (first-generation nuclear weapons, usually called atomic bombs) and fusion weapons (also known as hydrogen bombs, which are divided into two levels and three levels). Some also put hydrogen elements with induced radiation inside the weapon to increase the radiation intensity to expand the pollution, or strengthen the neutron radiation to kill people (such as neutron bombs).
Nuclear weapons are a general term for weapons that use self-sustaining energy released by nuclear fission or fusion reactions to produce explosive effects and have a large-scale killing and destructive effect. A fission weapon made mainly by the principle of fission chain reaction of heavy nuclei such as uranium 235 or plutonium 239, commonly referred to as an atomic bomb; a thermonuclear or fusion weapon made mainly by the thermonuclear reaction principle of light nuclei such as heavy hydrogen or super heavy hydrogen , usually called a hydrogen bomb.
In the United States, Hungarian physicist Zillad Leo, who moved from Europe, first considered that once fascist Germany mastered atomic bomb technology, it could have serious consequences. After he and several other scientists who moved from Europe to the United States, in August 1939, physicist A. Einstein wrote to the 32nd President of the United States, FD Roosevelt, and proposed to develop an atomic bomb to attract the attention of the US government. . But at the beginning, it only allocated $6,000. It was not until the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 that it expanded its scale. In August 1942, it developed into a huge program codenamed "Manhattan Project Area". The direct use of human resources was about 600,000. , investing more than 2 billion US dollars. By the end of the Second World War, three atomic bombs were made, making the United States the first country to have an atomic bomb.
On July 16, 1945, the United States successfully exploded the world's first atomic bomb. On August 6, 1945, the United States carried a 20,000-ton equivalent atomic bomb to bomb Hiroshima with a B-29 Super Air Fortress bomber. In 1949, the former Soviet Union successfully succeeded in its first atomic bomb. In 1952, Britain’s first atomic bomb exploded. In 1960, France also exploded. In 1964, China’s atomic bomb exploded and became the fifth nuclear power.
The way in which atomic weapons are exploded is air, ground (surface) and underground (underwater) explosions. When an atomic weapon explodes, it can produce a variety of killing and destructive effects. When the atomic bomb explodes, avoid watching the fireball, and immediately use the nearby fortifications and favorable terrain and features to conceal. The person on the open ground should immediately fall back to the heart. When you are lying down, you should abdomen, put your hands on the chest, close your eyes, and put your face on your arms. Temporarily deflated when hot air is present. Those who have to leave the room in the future should avoid windows, stoves, etc., lying down at the root of the wall in the direction of the explosion, under the table or under the bed. The early nuclear radiation action lasts from a few seconds to a dozen seconds, so it is possible to reduce the dose of nuclear radiation by immediately entering the bunker or fortification after the flash is found.